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AS 3 Cash Flow Statements it's Applicability and scope, FX rates between the reporting and foreign currency at the date of cash flow.
Table of contents
- IGAAP AND IFRS - A PRIMER: Analysis - 'AS 3' vs 'IAS 7' - Cash Flows
- Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper
- Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper
- Overview of International Accounting Standards-7 Statements of cash flow.
Information about the cash flows of an entity is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the entity to utilise those cash flows. The objective of this standard is to require the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity by means of a cash-flow statement which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.
An entity shall prepare a cash-flow statement in accordance with the requirements of this standard and shall present it as an integral part of its financial statements for each period for which financial statements are presented. Users of an entity's financial statements are interested in how the entity generates and uses cash and cash equivalents. This is the case regardless of the nature of the entity's activities and irrespective of whether cash can be viewed as the product of the entity, as may be the case with a financial institution.
Entities need cash for essentially the same reasons however different their principal revenue-producing activities might be.
IGAAP AND IFRS - A PRIMER: Analysis - 'AS 3' vs 'IAS 7' - Cash Flows
They need cash to conduct their operations, to pay their obligations, and to provide returns to their investors. Accordingly, this standard requires all entities to present a cash-flow statement. A cash-flow statement, when used in conjunction with the rest of the financial statements, provides information that enables users to evaluate the changes in net assets of an entity, its financial structure including its liquidity and solvency and its ability to affect the amounts and timing of cash flows in order to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities.
Cash flow information is useful in assessing the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and enables users to develop models to assess and compare the present value of the future cash flows of different entities. It also enhances the comparability of the reporting of operating performance by different entities because it eliminates the effects of using different accounting treatments for the same transactions and events.
Historical cash flow information is often used as an indicator of the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows. It is also useful in checking the accuracy of past assessments of future cash flows and in examining the relationship between profitability and net cash flow and the impact of changing prices. Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits. Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents. Operating activities are the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities. Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents. Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity.
Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes.
Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper
For an investment to qualify as a cash equivalent it must be readily convertible to a known amount of cash and be subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Therefore, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has a short maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition.
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Equity investments are excluded from cash equivalents unless they are, in substance, cash equivalents, for example in the case of preferred shares acquired within a short period of their maturity and with a specified redemption date. Bank borrowings are generally considered to be financing activities. However, in some countries, bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand form an integral part of an entity's cash management. In these circumstances, bank overdrafts are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents. A characteristic of such banking arrangements is that the bank balance often fluctuates from being positive to overdrawn.
Cash flows exclude movements between items that constitute cash or cash equivalents because these components are part of the cash management of an entity rather than part of its operating, investing and financing activities. The cash-flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financing activities. An entity presents its cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities in a manner which is most appropriate to its business.
Classification by activity provides information that allows users to assess the impact of those activities on the financial position of the entity and the amount of its cash and cash equivalents. This information may also be used to evaluate the relationships among those activities. A single transaction may include cash flows that are classified differently.
The amount of cash flows arising from operating activities is a key indicator of the extent to which the operations of the entity have generated sufficient cash flows to repay loans, maintain the operating capability of the entity, pay dividends and make new investments without recourse to external sources of financing. Information about the specific components of historical operating cash flows is useful, in conjunction with other information, in forecasting future operating cash flows.
Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity. Therefore, they generally result from the transactions and other events that enter into the determination of profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are:. Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant, may give rise to a gain or loss which is included in the determination of profit or loss.
However, the cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities. An entity may hold securities and loans for dealing or trading purposes, in which case they are similar to inventory acquired specifically for resale. Therefore, cash flows arising from the purchase and sale of dealing or trading securities are classified as operating activities. Similarly, cash advances and loans made by financial institutions are usually classified as operating activities since they relate to the main revenue-producing activity of that entity.
The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows.
Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper
Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are:. These payments include those relating to capitalised development costs and self-constructed property, plant and equipment;. When a contract is accounted for as a hedge of an identifiable position, the cash flows of the contract are classified in the same manner as the cash flows of the position being hedged.
The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of capital to the entity. Examples of cash flows arising from financing activities are:. Entities are encouraged to report cash flows from operating activities using the direct method. The direct method provides information which may be useful in estimating future cash flows and which is not available under the indirect method.
Under the direct method, information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments may be obtained either:. Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting profit or loss for the effects of:. Alternatively, the net cash flow from operating activities may be presented under the indirect method by showing the revenues and expenses disclosed in the income statement and the changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables.
Cash flows arising from the following operating, investing or financing activities may be reported on a net basis:. Cash flows arising from each of the following activities of a financial institution may be reported on a net basis:. Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency shall be recorded in an entity's functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow.
The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary shall be translated at the exchange rates between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows. This permits the use of an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate. However, IAS 21 does not permit use of the exchange rate at the balance sheet date when translating the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary.
Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the cash-flow statement in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period.
Overview of International Accounting Standards-7 Statements of cash flow.
This amount is presented separately from cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities and includes the differences, if any, had those cash flows been reported at end of period exchange rates. Cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid shall each be disclosed separately. Each shall be classified in a consistent manner from period to period as either operating, investing or financing activities. Interest paid and interest and dividends received are usually classified as operating cash flows for a financial institution.
However, there is no consensus on the classification of these cash flows for other entities. Interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of profit or loss. Alternatively, interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments.
Dividends paid may be classified as a financing cash flow because they are a cost of obtaining financial resources. Alternatively, dividends paid may be classified as a component of cash flows from operating activities in order to assist users to determine the ability of an entity to pay dividends out of operating cash flows. Cash flows arising from taxes on income shall be separately disclosed and shall be classified as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities.
Taxes on income arise on transactions that give rise to cash flows that are classified as operating, investing or financing activities in a cash-flow statement. While tax expense may be readily identifiable with investing or financing activities, the related tax cash flows are often impracticable to identify and may arise in a different period from the cash flows of the underlying transaction. Therefore, taxes paid are usually classified as cash flows from operating activities.
However, when it is practicable to identify the tax cash flow with an individual transaction that gives rise to cash flows that are classified as investing or financing activities the tax cash flow is classified as an investing or financing activity as appropriate. When tax cash flows are allocated over more than one class of activity, the total amount of taxes paid is disclosed.
When accounting for an investment in an associate or a subsidiary accounted for by use of the equity or cost method, an investor restricts its reporting in the cash-flow statement to the cash flows between itself and the investee, for example, to dividends and advances. An entity which reports its interest in a jointly controlled entity see IAS 31 Interests in joint ventures using proportionate consolidation, includes in its consolidated cash-flow statement its proportionate share of the jointly controlled entity's cash flows.
An entity which reports such an interest using the equity method includes in its cash-flow statement the cash flows in respect of its investments in the jointly controlled entity, and distributions and other payments or receipts between it and the jointly controlled entity. The aggregate cash flows arising from acquisitions and from disposals of subsidiaries or other business units shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities. An entity shall disclose, in aggregate, in respect of both acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries or other business units during the period each of the following:.
The separate presentation of the cash flow effects of acquisitions and disposals of subsidiaries and other business units as single line items, together with the separate disclosure of the amounts of assets and liabilities acquired or disposed of, helps to distinguish those cash flows from the cash flows arising from the other operating, investing and financing activities. The cash flow effects of disposals are not deducted from those of acquisitions. The aggregate amount of the cash paid or received as purchase or sale consideration is reported in the cash-flow statement net of cash and cash equivalents acquired or disposed of.
Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents shall be excluded from a cash-flow statement. Such transactions shall be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities. Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows although they do affect the capital and asset structure of an entity.
Examples of non-cash transactions are:. An entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts in its cash-flow statement with the equivalent items reported in the balance sheet. An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group.
There are various circumstances in which cash and cash equivalent balances held by an entity are not available for use by the group. Examples include cash and cash equivalent balances held by a subsidiary that operates in a country where exchange controls or other legal restrictions apply when the balances are not available for general use by the parent or other subsidiaries.
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Additional information may be relevant to users in understanding the financial position and liquidity of an entity. Disclosure of this information, together with a commentary by management, is encouraged and may include:.